Discoveries and inventions

The lists below contain our key discoveries and inventions.


  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have a lower effective refractive index than lipoproteins.
  • EV size distributions follow a power-law function.
  • Hollow organosilica beads and EVs have similar optical properties.
  • “Platelet-free plasma” contains 1 million platelets per mL.
  • Residual platelets in plasma affect down-stream analysis of “EVs”.
  • Size-exclusion chromatography can enrich EVs relative to lipoproteins and proteins.
  • Swarm detection of EVs by flow cytometry.


  • Technique to chemically characterize single EVs with Raman microspectroscopy (in collaboration with the University of Twente).
  • Technique to improve the light scattering sensitivity of a flow cytometer 30-fold (in collaboration with Beckton and Dickinson).
  • Technique to determine the size and refractive index of single nanoparticles with flow cytometry.
  • Technique to determine the refractive index of nanoparticles with single particle tracking analysis.